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Jpn J Biomechanics Sports Exercise 11 (3): 183-197, 2007

Kinetic factors affected the take-off angle of grab start in competitive swimming

Tsuyoshi TAKEDA1), Hiroshi ICHIKAWA2), Seiji SUGIMOTO1), Takahiro MIWA1), Shozo TSUBAKIMOTO3), Takeo NOMURA3)

1)University of Tsukuba, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences,
2)Japan Institute of Sports Sciences,
3)University of Tsukuba, Institute of Health and Sport Sciences


The purpose of this study was to investigate kinetic factors affected the take-off angle of the grab start. Twelve male college swimmers participated in this study. They were instructed to perform the grab start with three different take-off angles; usual take-off angle (Normal Trial: NT), higher take-off angle than Normal (High Trial: HT), lower take-off angle than Normal (Low Trial: LT). The starting movements were recorded by a high speed camera (250 fps) and the 2-DLT method was used for calculating the kinematical data. Ground reaction force was measured with force plate (Kistler, 9253B11) under the starting block. Joint torque at shoulder, hip, knee and ankle were calculated by the inverse dynamics. Joint torque was analyzed after subject’s hands released from starting block, because there was the closed loop of hands and feet on the force platform. Mean horizontal take-off velocity of HT was significantly slower than NT and LT. Changes in each joint torque did not differ among HT, NT and LT. However, segment absolute angles of foot, shank, thigh and trunk at the peak knee joint torque (tpk) decreased along with take-off angle decrement. In HT, mean negative peak value of knee joint torque power (Pk) significantly decreased, and then, mean maximum knee joint torque significantly increased than NT and LT. These results suggested that effective use of Stretch-Shortening-Cycle (SSC) contributed to the increment of knee extension torque. In conclusion, take-off angle was changed by inclination of whole body when joint extension torque generated.

Key Words: swim-start, joint torque, direction of jump

Submitted for Publication: May 8, 2007,

Accepted for Publication: Aug. 4, 2007



JJBSE バイオメカニクス研究